Meaning of Terms
- ARA - Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam - major ports in Northwest Europe
- Biodiesel is a non-fossil fuel - obtained from vegetable oil, or animal fats (bio-lipids). Biodiesel is a non-fossil fuel, cleaner burning alternative to petrodiesel. It can also be mixed with petrodiesel.
- Brent Crude - is the most common of many major classifications of oil consisting of Brent Crude, Brent Sweet Light Crude, Oseberg, Ekofisk and Forties. Brent Crude is sourced from the North Sea. The Brent Crude oil marker is also known as Brent Blend, London Brent and Brent petroleum. It is used to price two thirds of the world's internationally traded crude oil supplies.
- Bunde gas - natural gas is compressed for North Germany in the Bunde gas compressor station, near Leer in East Frisia. Bunde principally accepts delivery of natural gas from northwest European sources such as the British North Sea or Norway.
- Central Appalachian Coal - For the NYMEX futures market, coal contracts specify delivery by seller to the buyer at barge terminals on two limited sections of the river located in Central Appalachia, near the confluence of the Big Sandy and the Ohio Rivers. The sections are a 12-mile stretch of the Ohio River and the adjoining Big Sandy River (where coal barge terminals are within the lowermost 9 miles). The actual origins of the coal are not defined, but the coal must meet a set of specifications as to heat, ash, moisture, sulfur, volatile matter, hardness/grindability, and sizing and must be delivered in 1,550 ton trading units.
- CER or Certified Emissions Reduction - the name for a carbon offset credit that is registered with the CDM Board of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and traded for compliance with the Kyoto Protocols. To be granted CER credits, a carbon offset project must be first built, then verified and approved by various bureaucracies and UN committees. The equivalent in the United States is a Chicago Climate Exchange CFI.
- CIF - Cost, Insurance and Freight (named destination port) - it is a term of the contract for selling goods being shipped where the seller pays for loading costs, ocean freight and insurance to the destination.
- Diesel fuel - in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel.